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Freedonia Grants for 2015
Over the past year, Titiesg Wîcinímintôwak // Bluejays Dancing Together has been able to host skills building art workshops for two-spirit community in Tkaronto and Detroit. With funding from Freedonia, Titiesg Wîcinímintôwak // Bluejays Dancing Together supported intergenerational, youth-led organizing for new generation Bluejays members while eating delicious, culturally-relevant, sovereign foods. The group able to expand access to art materials, transportation, accessibility and childcare for all workshops and events. This funding has supported two-spirit arts community to continue holding space and dialogue necessary for their continued resistance, survival and resurgence as knowledge keepers, caregivers, sex workers, designers, artists and so much more.
In the spring of 2015 Alliance Against Displacement (AAD) was just beginning a new organizing strategy under a vision for a pan-regional movement against displacement and for housing justice in southwest British Columbia. The problem was that AAD had a plan, but no funding or resources to carry it out. The Freedonia grant let AAD build the foundation for a new pan-regional anti-displacement movement that is now yielding community actions, new organizations, and transformative possibilities. In the summer and fall AAD used funding resources building foundations in two different communities. In the Metrotown area of Burnaby AAD paid for poster and leaflet printing and bought food for weekly organizing meetings to support low-income and single-parent families to attend. Those resources were necessary to building relations and trust in the community. The most significant expense in this period was printing (now 400 copies) of a 24-page report on demovictions in Metrotown. This report has become an essential basis for a campaign that has overturned business (and evictions) as usual in Burnaby. In Maple Ridge AAD used funding to travel to visit regularly with homeless residents, bringing them food and coffee in their homeless camp; around which AAD gathered ad hoc planning meetings. Three times between January and June, AAD organized delegations of homeless and low-income people to converge on Victoria in solidarity with the Super InTent City camp there as they came under attack from the state. Because Victoria is on Vancouver Island, AAD needed money to pay for the ferry (the first time for nearly fifty people to converge on the capital) as well as food for the whole day, and vans and busses to get people back to their communities throughout the lower mainland. In June AAD organized a two-day organizing summit and supported forty homeless and low-income people to come together in Vancouver and discuss and strategize their fights against displacement. With Freedonia's funding AAD was able to feed and house those forty people for two whole days, rent meeting space for 16 hours, and print information packages for them and to take back to their communities. Finally, in July AAD occupied an evicted apartment building in Metrotown for twelve days in an action called the "Anti-Imperial Squat." AAD was not prepared for this action to last so long so were not able to fundraise additional money. AAD used the last of the Freedonia grant money on food and supplies for those twelve days, supporting not only the activist squatters but also a dozen homeless people who found shelter in the squat and held community breakfasts and BBQs every day in order to consolidate local neighbour support around the action.In the last year Freedonia has helped AAD lay the foundations for a new movement against displacement during a time that displacement is fast becoming the norm. The funds helped support homeless people to build their political analysis and power, repeat anti-free market housing demonstrations, squat an apartment, and develop an anti-capitalist and anti-colonial political alliance.
With the support of Freedonia in 2015, End the Prison Industrial Complex (EPIC) has been developing infrastructure for communications between prisoners in Canada and their supporters outside, intended to undermine state-imposed isolation, improve our understanding of prison conditions, and make us more responsive to prisoner struggles. EPIC utilized funding towards keeping an active PO Box, maintaining a postage fund for prisoner correspondence and mail-outs, paying for phone time for projects and ongoing relationships, supporting the Prison Justice Art Show for Prisoners Justice Day 2015, and putting out "Over the Wall," a twice-annual newsletter documenting prison resistance in Ontario and publishing the analysis of prisoners involved in those struggles.
Freedonia supported Butterfly Asian and Migrant Sex Workers Support Network to outreach, publish bi-monthly newsletters, organize workshops to build up the capacity of community organizing in Toronto. The funding helped increase participation of migrant sex workers in Toronto in the organizing work of Butterfly, build a support network, increase awareness of how they are oppressed by different social structures and systems. It enhanced the equity and justice of migrant sex workers and worked to eliminate discrimination against them. It also provided support to Butterfly to build up network with sex work, migrant and labour organizations to fight against police abuse, racial profiling and the harm of anti-trafficking policy. It also educated the public by organizing forums, publications and campaigns of migrant sex workers justice. More info is available here.
Support from Freedonia to Rising Tide Toronto made it possible for them to offer free transportation from Toronto to Aamjiwnaang for the 2015 Toxic Tour in August, which allowed people in Toronto to see Chemical Valley first hand: both the environmental devastation, and the community-led resistance. The event created an opportunity for education and exchange between residents from Aamjiwnaang and Sarnia, and people in Toronto as well as other Southern Ontario cities. RT Toronto was happily surprised by the interest from people in Toronto, and ended up needing 3 more busses than anticipated! Over 250 people traveled to the Toxic Tour from Toronto. RT is thrilled to have connected with so many people; it was truly a great outreach opportunity, and look forward to ongoing work with youth from Aamjiwnaang as they organize against the destruction going on in Chemical Valley: the 2016 Toxic Tour, developing the connections made and organizing with people and groups in Toronto in support of Indigenous Sovereignty and against toxic industry.
With the support of a grant from a grant from Freedonia in 2015, Radical Action with Migrants in Agriculture (RAMA) members successfully carried out the following activities:
- English Classes: A weekly class in a central location easily accessible to hundreds of workers. English classes were taught weekly from mid-June to October by six volunteer tutors, and served more than two dozen migrant men and women.
- Farm Visits: During the 2015 season, RAMA visited farms in Cawston, Keremeos, Lake Country, Kelowna, West Kelowna, Oyama, Vernon, Lavington, Lumby, the Westside, and Armstrong.
- Public education and awareness campaigns: Aimed at raising awareness about the situation of migrant workers. This took the form of talks in the community and in classrooms, radio and television interviews, and participation in symposiums, lectures, and public panels.
- Orientation baskets: to hand out to seasonal migrant workers when they arrive in the valley. These packages included English-Spanish dictionaries, regional maps and bus schedules, information about the legal rights of workers, as well as packs of dominoes and playing cards. RAMA members distributed these packages to over 200 seasonal migrant workers in 5 communities.
- Inclusive Community Events: During the 2015 season, RAMA organized a number of inclusive community events for migrant workers. These included barbecues, Mexican Independence Day celebrations, and a late thanksgiving dinner. For many men and women these events are the only opportunities they have to leave the farms, except to do their weekly grocery shopping. RAMA envisions all of these events as practical ways to create more radically inclusive communities and to publicly demonstrate solidarity with farmworkers.
After one year in the Tower's location at Cannon and Victoria, they signed a new lease and were looking to address the biggest limitation of our location: physical accessibility. Although the space was accessible in many ways -- it's on a major bus route, is embedded in the communities it works with, is free of charge, welcoming to children, etc. -- there were two steps to get in the door and the washroom was narrow. With a grant from Freedonia, the Tower approached Stop Gap, a Toronto-based not-for-profit specialising in barrier-free access for commercial spaces. These good folks built the space an amazing ramp that is regularly used during weekly open hours, meal serves, and events. Although the washrooms are still too narrow for most accessibility devices, this was a huge step forward for The Tower that was made possible with help from Freedonia.
Freedonia Grants for 2014
The People's Social Forum used the Freedonia grant to encourage POC and Indigenous solidarity, both at the PSF and at the Six Nations reserve. The funds were used to hire an organizer to organize a hype-event/fundraiser for the PSF's People of Colour Caucus and put together a POC and Indigenous delegation for the forum itself. At the forum, funds were used to provide food for the POC space. Leftover funds were used to fund solidarity missions to help a family at Six Nations build an Earthship. These trips were also meant to further the goal of POC/Indigenous solidarity and relationship-building.
OCAP has long been rooted in the poor and racialized community of Toronto's Downtown East. It always seeks the means to draw upon support in the area and turn it into activist participation. In 2014, with the support of Freedonia, OCAP held a four week community organizing course for about twenty-five people. In this, OCAP held interactive sessions on historical, political issues related to poor peoples' resistance and social mobilizing. They also spent time dealing with more practical skills related to casework and community organizing. Previous to this course, OCAP also put on two workshops, each attended by about a dozen people, on public speaking and graphic design. At these too, OCAP put an emphasis on bringing on people from the Downtown East. The workshops and courses were highly successful. The people who attended them learned a great deal and established OCAP activists learned much from the whole process. The events brought new people into the work of OCAP and strengthened the group's ties to the community. At the present time, OCAP is holding a regular monthly speaker series on anti-capitalist/social resistance themes that are bringing in dozens of local people. The work in 2014 made this possible.
With the support of a grant from Freedonia in 2014, Radical Action with Migrants in Agriculture (RAMA) was able to continue to fight for more radically inclusive and just communities by:
- Organizing opportunities for seasonal agricultural workers to make connections in their local communities and build strong and lasting relationships
- Engaging in direct support and accompaniment of workers at their request. This work includes transportation and accompaniment to doctors’ offices, government facilities, grocery stores, banks, or other businesses
- Intervening on behalf of workers in crisis situations or conflicts with employers, Canadian government officials, and foreign consular officials
- Documenting with photos and audio and video interviews, the experiences of workers while in Canada including their housing conditions and treatment by employers
- Engaging in political advocacy alongside and on behalf of workers who often are restricted in their ability to speak up against abuses.
As gentrification in Hamilton continued to accelerate, anarchists and community groups lost access to free meeting and event space in the downtown core. These spaces, including community centres and co-ops, had been vitally important to organizing in one of the poorest urban areas in the country. The Tower collective formed with the goal of renting a storefront to host anarchistic, grassroots projects free of charge - it would be funded by monthly sustainer donations, an annual fundraiser, and small grants from like-minded organizations (like Freedonia!). In order to launch the project, consult with local organizers, and, crucially, take a long hard look at gentrification and what their place might be within it, the Tower held a day-long series of workshops and facilitated discussions. This event, funded by Freedonia, hosted and fed over fifty people, produced collective positions on opposing gentrification, and laid out a set of priorities for what we needed in a space. It also created much of the fundraising base that would then quickly raise the money for us to begin renting at the corner of Cannon and Victoria a month later.
Thorncliffe Reach-out Teach-in (TRT) has been running a free weekly learning centre in Thorncliffe Park for three years, building community consciousness about the class and race-based inequalities that are leading to low educational outcomes for local students, while at the same time concretely addressing these outcomes through quality tutoring in math, language and critical thinking. They aim to foster a broader political consciousness about other local and global injustices among the children, youth and parents who attend the program. The funds TRT received from Freedonia were essential to sustain this program and allowed them to further their anti-racist solidarity-building work. This included developing materials to start conversations about police brutality against the Black community with elementary school students. Additionally, as the previous federal government mobilized Islamophobic sentiments to gain support for Bill C-51, TRT was able to hold information sessions and community-wide events to inform the large Muslim community of Thorncliffe about their rights and encourage them to join our campaign against the bill. This background work that the Freedonia grant allowed TRT to do over several months was indispensable to build a strong anti-racist foundation which enabled them to respond to a particularly violent Islamophobia attack last fall that happened in a neighbouring community, Flemingdon Park. Within a few days following the attack, TRT organizers tapped into networks they had fostered over the years in the community and held a widely-reported and successful rally, bringing together residents from Thorncliffe and Flemingdon as well as activists from across the city. TRT could not have pulled this off without the years of background work in building analysis and relationships, in which Freedonia funds played an important role.
Earth Justice Action, a grassroots collective of long-time supporters of earth defenders from Grassy Narrows Asubpeeschoseewagong (GNAA), organized River Run 2014 with funding from Freedonia, a week of action and events in Toronto taking direction from the Grassy Narrows Womens Drum Group. Building on the success of River Run 2010 and 2012, 40 earth defenders and community members from GNAA travelled 1200 kms to Toronto to keep the pressure on the Ontario government to make meaningful reparations for mercury poisoning of the community's watershed and to cease making plans for industrial logging in the community's territories.
In the summer of 2015, West Coast Domestic Workers' Association (WCDWA) conducted outreach to inform migrant worker communities and advocates about the Rising Up Against Illegal Recruitment project, with funds from Freedonia. WCDWA partnered with the Bayanihan Community Centre in Victoria, Radical Action with Migrants in Agriculture (“RAMA”) in Kelowna and the Migrant Workers Dignity Association (“MWDA”) and Migrante BC in the Lower Mainland to reach out to workers and invite them to participate in three focus groups. Focus group participants included migrant workers from the Philippines (11), Mexico (5), Sri Lanka (1), and Nepal (2) who were employed in caregiving, fast food service, construction and farm work. During the sessions, migrant workers shared their stories of recruitment to work in Canada. They talked about abuses by recruiters, including the charging of illegal fees for a job, being hired for jobs that didn’t exist once they arrived in Canada, and false promises regarding the type of work they were hired to do. Focus group participants also discussed ways to combat these illegal recruitment practices. The findings of the focus groups were compiled in a summary report, which was then shared with participants of the focus groups. A copy of the report is enclosed. Participants and advocates were invited to a report back meeting in December 2015 in Vancouver. During that meeting, a new working group was launched to strategize around developing a campaign to combat illegal recruitment. The working group has since met in February and March 2016 and is comprised of workers, advocates, lawyers and researchers who have begun implementing the recommendations in the summary report.
Gallery Gachet hosted The Icarus Project for the Mad Cartographies and Retrospective art show as well as a series of workshops in Vancouver, BC with fundinf from Freedonia. The Icarus Project is a peer-supported network of people labelled as struggling with mental health issues in their lives. This grassroots organization has worked to reframe the conversation on “mental health” with a systemic radical analysis of the contributing factors that create and foster a mad world. Bringing the Icarus Project to Gallery Gachet, an artist-run centre run by artists marginalized by their mental health, abuse, addictions, and trauma experience, built and strengthened the radical mental health movement and create a venue for rad mad artists to share their work.
Freedonia’s contribution enabled Check Your Head to collaborate with No One Is Illegal - Vancouver Coast Salish Territories, a grassroots anti-colonial migrant justice group. Together they developed a workshop that engaged, activated, and empowered young people by helping them to better understand immigration in Canada and by giving them the tools to break down anti-migrant racism and colonial stereotypes. It featured arts-based activities, experiential learning, and interactive histories. This Migrant Justice workshop is now part of CYH's regular programming and has been one of the most frequently requested workshops by youth and educators in the past two years.
Freedonia Grants for 2009
Freedonia has completed its third funding round and is pleased to announce its 2009 list of grantees. The following organizations have received funding from Freedonia in the 2009 Funding Round:
Freedonia provided a grant to Jane-Finch On the Move to build on its Political Awareness Accountability Project by maintaining contact with previous participants, reviewing discussions from the three community forums already held, identifying relevant issues to serve as focal points for the campaign and incorporating these focal points into outreach materials, activities and actions.
Temiskaming Native Women's Support Group received support from Freedonia to develop a community garden and provide access to individuals and organizations to participate in planting and harvesting fresh produce and develop programs for the daycare and community with teachings about the garden.
Freedonia is supporting the Olympic Resistance Network - Education Sub Committee to develop a workshop with youth about the history, legacy and negative impacts of the Olympic games, create a zine for highschool and university students and host workshops and support mobilizing with youth around the Olympics.
With support from Freedonia, Caregivers Support Services is carrying out an education and advoacy project with live-in caregivers providing information sessions and supporting caregivers to mobilize for accessibility to services and changes in legislation.
Secwepemc Nation Youth Network will travel to 17 of the Secwepemc bands within the Secwepemc Nation and visit house-to-house to expand grassroots organizing and produce an in-depth publication written by Native People for Native People about the Indigenous land struggle, as well as put together a larger database and network of Secwepemc Peoples interested in building and organizing for Secwepemc Lands and Freedom.
Students for Medicare will conduct a "field trip" to Ithaca, NY to visit the Ithaca health Alliance to observe clinic structure and constituency and organize a Toronto panel for various health community service providers to highlight best practice guidelines in servicing low-income communities and those without status or insurance.
Freedonia provided a grant to 4th Annual Victoria Anarchist Bookfair and Festival of Anarchy to support media outreach and promotion as well as assist organizers in arranging workshops, accommodation and transportation for the event.
Freedonia is supporting National Farmers Union Youth to organize an exchange between active youth members of the National Farmers Union with local Kingston area farmers who are engaged in alternative food and farming practices, conduct on-farm training sessions and a visit to the Kingston Farmers Market, support youth to develop a presentation based on their experiences and establish a working group to plan the agenda and logistics for upcoming national conferences.
Freedonia supported Secwepemc Radio to provide training to four aboriginal young adults in community journalism and support these youth to produce a radio piece. Freedonia’s grant will also provide assistance for necessary tools and travel expenses for this project
Freedonia is supporting the South Asian Women’s Rights Organization’s to work with a group of women childcare workers in the Teesdale Place/Crescent Town area of Toronto toward the establishment of a neighborhood daycare centre and childcare workers’ co-operative aimed at providing employment and making affordable and culturally sensitive childcare available in the neighborhood. The project includes carrying out a community needs assessment and mobilizing support in the community.
The F Word Collective will develop a workshop that will apply feminist, anti-oppressive analysis to media that is relevant to youth, and present the workshop in high schools and youth organizations in the community.
Freedonia provided a grant to Migrante Ontario to outreach to live-in caregivers and organize workshops on a variety of topics, as well as organizing leadership building activities with caregivers.
Freedonia is supporting a project called Newly Organized Collective Opposed to Police in Schools that will carry out grassroots outreach at high schools, door to door outreach to low income neighbourhoods and public forums to address issues of police in communities and in schools. The project aims to create an autonomous student organizing body.
Freedonia is supporting No One Is Illegal – Toronto to organize 'City is a Sweatshop', a week of speeches, panels, performances and actions that aim to highlight the violence faced by undocumented people, migrants of color, poor and low-waged workers and queer refugee claimants in Toronto. No One Is Illegal – Toronto will also organize follow-up events and activities, including a Migrant Justice Organizing School.
Freedonia supported the Under the Volcano Festival of Art and Social Change with a grant to present diverse panel discussions during the 19th Annual Under the Volcano Festival.
Workers’ Action Centre in Toronto received a grant from Freedonia to work with members to collectively develop creative strategies linked to the "Ontario Workers Need a Fair Deal" campaign and undertake a range of actions, including delegation visits, actions to highlight unfair working conditions or violations within a sector, and provision of skills training;
Thank you to everyone who applied in the 2008 funding round. Unfortunately there were many more deserving applicants whom we were unable to fund due to limited financial resources.
Freedonia Grants for 2008
October 26, 2008
Freedonia has completed its second funding round and is pleased to announce its 2008 list of grantees. The following organizations have received funding from Freedonia in the 2008 Funding Round:
The Alliance for Peoples’ Health is organizing five “Community Diagnosis” workshops within poor and working class communities in Vancouver. Based on the key health issues that emerge in the first phase, the organizers will hold five more participatory popular-education workshops entitled “the People’s Health Series” to stimulate action on the identified issues. The process will be documented and analyzed with participants and the results will be launched publicly in the community.
Basics Free Community Newsletter is more than just a bi-monthly publication distributed door-to-door in the Lawrence Heights neighbourhood. With Freedonia’s help, Basics has also hired a part-time community organizer to help build community organizing efforts in the neighbourhood.
The Camas Collective Books and Infoshop is undergoing renovations to increase accessibility. Freedonia’s grant is also removing less visible barriers by subsidizing transportation, providing translation at events, and subsidizing the use of the space and its resources by local community organizations.
The Community Friends have undertaken solidarity work with the aboriginal community of Six Nations by preparing a documentary on the land rights struggle and organizing showings in nearby non-Native communities, organizing a weekend conference of solidarity activists at Six Nations, and a series of anti-racist workshops for local people in the area.
Dragonfly Farm turned 30 this year with a conference on the weekend of August 22-24. The conference explored the successes and challenges of the back-to-the-land movement and building of rural intentional communities.
Jane-Finch On the Move is holding at least three community forums where Jane-Finch residents can discuss new and progressive strategies to address community issues. The group will carry out actions based on what is decided at these forums, and conduct door-to-door outreach to engage residents in the process.
Muslim Women Against Violence will host an action retreat for Muslim women in the GTA, hold monthly meetings for young Muslim women and organize violence prevention gatherings at mosques and community centres in the area specifically on the issues of violence against women and Islamophobia.
The No Gold for Water Campaign aims to organize the El Salvadorean community living in Canada to develop a pool of activists that can challenge the impacts of gold mining and the practices of Canadian mining companies operating in El Salvador.
On May 5, 2008, Freedonia supported the National Day of Action for Status for All, a rally and community fair organized by No One Is Illegal – Toronto to highlight the fight for rights for non-status people in Canada.
Arts in Action runs the Purple Thistle Centre, a new-school youth centre located in East Vancouver equidistant between three low-income neighbourhoods. With Freedonia’s help, they are able to offer two employment and lifeskills programs during the day, as well as a wide variety of classes, lectures, trips and projects. The Centre houses a computer lab, darkroom, bike repair shop, library, sewing area, etc. They host meetings and workshops for a wide variety of community organizations.
Vancouver’s Redzone Collective is developing skills-sharing workshops, collaborative arts projects and community building projects to further the use of traditional Coast Salish cultural practices amongst urban First Nations people.
Freedonia is supporting the South Asian Women’s Rights Organization’s “Women’s Summer Workshop Series”, a community organizing effort that uses participatory education to develop leadership by South Asian women in the Toronto area.
This year’s Under the Volcano Festival of Art and Social Change was supported by a grant from Freedonia that enabled them to do community outreach and include workshops for participants on a variety of social change themes.
Film screenings, media outreach and promotion of the 3rd Annual Victoria Anarchist Bookfair and Festival of Anarchy were supported by a grant from Freedonia that also assisted the organizers in arranging workshops, accommodation and transportation for the event.
Toronto’s Workers’ Action Centre develops collective strategies to challenge unfair labour practices and develop worker leadership amongst some of the region’s most vulnerable workers. Freedonia is proud to support the Centre’s grassroots direct action approach including group visits to bad bosses, pickets, phone blitzes, outreach to consumers, visits to corporate clients, mass meetings, “bad boss tours”, etc.
Application deadlines for the 2009 funding round will be posted soon.
Freedonia Grants for 2007
October 2, 2007
Freedonia completed its first funding round in 2007. The following organizations received funding from Freedonia in the 2007 Funding Round:
The Canadian Sri Lankan Women’s Network is a Toronto-based group confronting economic deprivation and social marginalization in Canada and strengthening the presence of women’s voices within the Canadian Sri Lankan community. Freedonia’s grant will help the Network conduct workshops and develop a web site. This added capacity will help ensure this unique perspective is heard.
The Hemp Workers Collective will work to lay a foundation for a regional organic and co-operative hemp industry in Renfrew County that can be a model empowering farmers and impoverished rural communities.
The Indigenous Network on Economics and Trade will be visiting aboriginal communities to discuss the extinguishment agreements promoted through the “British Columbia Treaty Process” and raise awareness of how the agreements will lead to the privatization of formerly inalienable lands held by indigenous families, the extinguishment of land rights to their traditional territories and increased corporate control over the resources in these lands.
Working autonomously in British Columbia and Ontario, Justice for Migrant Workers will be continuing their work assisting migrant farm workers in organizing to defend their rights. JFMW is an innovative organizing model amongst some of the most vulnerable workers in Canada.
LIFT (Low Income Families Together) will continue with its efforts to organize and build capacity in the ethnically diverse and densely-populated community of St. James Town in Toronto.
Freedonia’s grant to the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty’s Neighbourhood Defence Committees Project will a) strengthen leadership skills within the committees as they consolidate and grow – and hopefully proliferate across the city of Toronto; b) facilitate skill- and experience-sharing between committees; c) offer material support the committees’ activities.
The Ojibway Nation Trade Circle will gather youth from Asubpeechoseewagong and Six Nations to plan a project focusing on economic self determination and cooperation between indigenous communities in Ontario.
Punchclock, a Toronto trades/art collective, will buy tools, build its workshop and solidify its network of worker co-operativess and artists engaged in creative subversion.
Regent Park Women and Families will build community capacity, address social isolation, and offer skills development in the hope of developing functioning work collectives with low-income immigrant women in Toronto’s Regent Park neighbourhood.
SPUDS (Sowing Potatoes Underground for Denman Sustainability) will be experimenting with a form of collective gardening in the hope they can create a working regional example of a sustainable food system model.
Sutikalh is a camp on traditional Lliloet territory being considered for development as a ski resort and a centre for gatherings and meetings throughout the Indigenous resistance movement. Freedonia’s grant will help Sutikalh improve its on-site infrastructure.
Tsunami Print and Sew will purchase merchandise and materials for production and resale to raise additional funds to open a new info shop/gallery/organizing centre in Victoria.
Thank you to everyone who applied in the 2007 funding round. Unfortunately there were many more deserving applicants whom we were unable to fund due to limited financial resources.